Protein Digestibility

Food item

Protein
digestibility

Source
(see below)
almonds0.88

15

amaranth

0.721

20

apple


4

barley

0.9

27

baru almond

0.7548

5

beans



beans, black

0.7

14

beans, black, pressure cooked

0.72

3

beans, broad

0.87

27

beans, brown, cooked

0.79

27

beans, butter

0.57

27

beans, faba, pressure cooked

0.86

3

beans, haricot

0.71

27

beans, lima

0.78

27

beans, kidney

0.786

14

beans, kidney, canned

0.81

3

beans, kidney, white

0.78

27

beans, navy

0.8

14

beans, pinto

0.762

14

beans, pinto, canned

0.73

3

beans, pinto, pressure cooked

0.8

3

beans, red

0.78

27

beans, seafarer, pressure cooked

0.84

3

beans, snap, frozen

0.82

27

beans, sugar

0.69

27

beans, sugar, speckled

0.78

27

beans, sugar, spotted

0.81

27

beans, velvet

0.68

27

beef

0.98

3

beef, ground, lowfat

0.91

27

beef, powdered, defatted

0.97

27

beef, steak

0.97

27

beef, tenderloin, roasted

0.91

27

brazil nut

0.892

5

buckwheat

0.8

10

cabbage

0.88

27

carrot


4

casein

0.99

3

casein, acid

0.95

27

casein, rennet

0.94

27

caseinate

0.96

27

cashew nut

0.8766

5

cheese, cheddar

0.99

27

cheese, cottage

0.99

27

chia, flour

0.798

6

chia, flour, toasted

0.3418

6

chia seed, raw

0.2901

6

chia seed, soaked

0.243

6

chia seed, toasted

0.1087

6

chicken

1

27

chicken, dark meat

0.92

27

chicken, light meat

0.93

27

chicken franks

0.96

3

chickpeas

0.85

14

chickpeas, canned

0.88

3

cocoa husk

0.68

16

cocoa powder.3631

coconut meal, defatted

0.893

24

coconut meal, whole

0.8875

24

coconut protein concentrate

0.9402

24

collagen/gelatin


21

corn, extruded cereal

0.62

27

corn, corn flakes

0.7

27

corn, degerminated opaque 2

0.94

27

corn, germ, w/pericarp


2

corn, puffed cereal

0.76

27

corn, whole

0.89

27

corn, whole kernel


2

corn, whole opaque 2

0.92

27

cornmeal

0.84

27

cottonseed flour, glandless

0.98

27

cottonseed meal0.0827
cowpeas0.7927
Food itemProtein
digestibility
Source
(see below)

egg, albumen

0.97

27

egg, dried

0.98

27

egg, flakes

0.92

27

egg, powdered, defatted

1

27

egg, powdered, dried

0.93

27

egg, scrambled

0.96

27

egg, spray dried

0.92

27

egg, whole

0.97

27

egg white

1

3

egg white powder


1

flaxseed

0.85

27

haddock

1

27

hemp seed, dehulled

0.878

23

hemp seed, whole

0.8515

23

hemp seed meal

0.9415

23

herring, canned in oil

0.954

19

indian almond, T. Catappa seed

0.284

17

kale


4

kale

0.85

27

lactalbumin

0.94

27

lentils

0.85

27

lentils, canned

0.84

3

lentils, green, whole

0.879

14

lentils, pressure cooked

0.85

3

lentils, red, split

0.906

14

lupine

0.76

27

mackerel, canned in oil

0.935

19

milk protein isolate


1

milk, retentate

0.97

27

milk, skim

0.95

3

milk, whole

0.94

27

milk, whole, powdered

0.95

27

millet

0.79

27

mung bean protein isolate0.9633
mung bean seeds0.8734
mung bean seeds, raw0.834
mung bean seeds, dehulled0.8434
mung bean seeds, soaked0.8734
mung bean seeds, germinated0.8934
mung bean seeds, boiled0.8834
mung bean seeds, autoclaved0.8834
mung bean seeds, microwaved0.8834

mushroom

0.7

12 & 13

mushroom, agaricus macrosporous


11

mushroom, oyster


11

mustard

0.82

27

oats, sugared flakes

0.67

27

oat, flakes

0.7

27

oat, extruded oat/wheat

0.76

27

oat cereal

0.89

27

oats, quick

0.82

27

oats, oatmeal

0.9

27

oats, rolled

0.91

3

pea flour

0.88

3

pea protein concentrate

0.92

3

peanut

0.9114

5

peanut butter

0.98

3

peanut flour

0.93

27

peanut meal

0.94

3




peas


4

peas

0.88

27

peas, alaskan field

0.88

27

peas, century, pressure cooked

0.83

3

peas, green, frozen

0.94

27

peas, green, split

0.852

14

peas, pigeon

0.76

27

peas, trapper, pressure cooked

0.84

3

peas, yellow, cooked

0.86

27

peas, yellow, split

0.879

14

pecan

0.71

27

pork

0.98

27

potato


4

potato

0.89

27

Food itemProtein
digestibility
Source
(see below)
pumpkin seed meal0.877828
pumpkin seed meal, from dried cake0.937426
pumpkin seed protein concentrate0.906428
pumpkin seed protein isolate0.939728

pumpkin seed protein isolate, pH neutralized

0.9683

28

quinoa

0.92

7, 8

rape

0.82

27

rapeseed protein concentrate

0.95

3

rapeseed protein isolate

0.95

3

rice

0.91

27

rice, brown

0.88

9

rice, brown, cooked

0.72

27

rice, germ

0.87

27

rice, high protein

0.85

27

rice, milled

0.86

27

rice, polished

0.87

27

rice, crisped rice cereal

0.77

27

rice, flakes

0.63

27

rice flour

0.92

14

rice protein concentrate


3

rice-wheat gluten

0.95

3

sardine

0.95

27

sardine, canned in oil

0.95

19

sesame seeds, dehulled

0.82

27

shark

0.8369

25**

shrimp

0.8346

25**

sole

0.8236

25**

sorghum, cooked

0.73

27

soy assay protein

0.95

3

soy flour

0.835

14

soy flour, defatted

0.97

27

soy protein isolate

0.98

1, 3

soybean protein concentrate

0.95

3

soybean protein isolate

0.98

3

soybeans

0.9

3

sprat (fish), canned in oil

0.93

19

sunflower meal

0.9

3

sunflower protein isolate

0.94

3

sunflower seeds

0.82

27

tilapia

0.8336

25**

triticale

0.9

27

trout, rainbow

0.6

18

tuna

0.97

3

tuna, canned in oil

0.937

19

turkey

0.8291

25**

turkey breast, roasted

0.91

27

turnip leaves

0.86

27

walnuts

0.861

29

watermelon seed flour

0.63

22

watermelon seed protein isolate

0.88

22

wheat

0.93

3

wheat, 40% bran flakes

0.69

27

wheat, bran

0.75

27

wheat, bread

0.96

27

wheat, bread, white

0.99

27

wheat, bread, whole wheat

0.92

27

wheat, brown, cooked

0.93

27

wheat, brown, coarse

0.91

27

wheat, endosperm/farina

0.98

27

wheat, hard spring

0.86

27

wheat, meat analog

0.95

27

wheat, puffed wheat

0.84

27

wheat, shredded wheat

0.73

27

wheat, wheaties cereal

0.8

27

wheat, whole

0.91

3

wheat, whole, hot cereal

0.85

27

wheat flour

0.923

14

wheat flour, 80% extracted

0.92

27

wheat flour, 90% extracted

0.89

27

wheat flour, white

0.97

27

wheat germ

0.81

27

wheat gluten

0.96

3

whey protein


1

whey protein

0.95

27

SOURCES

*PDCAAS and Protein Digestibility factors may vary from source to source.  These values are for general purposes.  You may see different values for specific products, supplier information or other sources.  It is best practice to document the source information for values you use.

  1. Gangurde, Hemant H; Chordiya, Mayur A; Patil, Pooja S; Baste, Nayana S, "Whey protein", Scholar's Research Journal, 2011, 1:2, pp 69-77. http://www.scholarsjournal.in/article.asp?issn=2249-5975;year=2011;volume=1;issue=2;spage=69;epage=77;aulast=Gangurde
  2. Veloso naves, Maria Margareth; Leao de Castro, Maiza Vieira; Luiz de Mendonca, Aline; Gebrim Santos, Grazielle; Sebastiana Silva, Maria, "Corn germ with pericarp in relation to whole corn: nutrient contents, food and protein efficiency, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, Food Science and Technology (Campinas). 2011, Jan/Mar. 31:1.  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612011000100040
  3. FAO Protein quality evaluation 1991.  Report of the Joint FAO/WHO. Expert Consultation Bethesda, Md., USA4-8 December 1989 "
  4. Jørgensen, Henry and Lauridsen, Charlotte. "Nutrient composition and bioavailability of protein and energy in common fruits and vegetables prepared for human consumption." Challenges to food science and technology. Abstract collection, Food Congress 2004., Levnedsmiddelcentret, p. 135. Poster: http://orgprints.org/5192/1/5192.pdf
  5. Freitas, JB; Fernandes, DC; Czeder, LP; Lima, JCR; Sousa, AGO; Naves, MMV. "Edible Seeds and Nuts Grown in Brazil as Sources of Protein for Human Nutrition", Food & Nutrition Sciences, 2012, 3:6.   http://file.scirp.org/Html/19-2700412_20057.htm
  6. Monroy Torres, R; Mancilaa Escobar, ML; Gallaga Solorzano, JC; Medina Godoy, S; Santiago Garcia, EJ. "Protein Digestibility of Chia Seed Salvia hispanica L", Revista Salud Publica y Nutricion. 2008, 9:1. http://www.respyn.uanl.mx/ix/1/articulos/protein_didestibity.htm
  7. Ruales, J., Nair, BM, Nutritional quality of the protein in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, 1992, 42:1, pp 1-11.
  8. Owusu-Apenten, R. Food Protein Analysis: Quantitative Effects On Processing, 2002, p 379.
  9. Kammer, L. Dietary Considerations of Protein Quality. University of Texas at Austin.
  10. Eggum, B.O., Kreft, I., Javornik, B., "Chemical composition and protein quality of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench )", Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1980, Volume 30, Issue 3-4, pp 175-179; http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01094020"
  11. Dabbour, IR; Takruri, HR. "Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms grown in Jordan", Plant Foods for Human Nutrition.  2002, Winter, 57(1), pp 13-24.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11855618
  12. Roupas, P.; Krause, D.; Taylor, P. "Mushrooms and Health 2014:  Clinical and Nutritional Studies in Humans", CSIRO Food and Health Flagship Australia.  June 2014.  http://www.mushroomsandhealth.com/files/Files/Nutrient_profile.pdf
  13. Chang, S.T.; Hayes, W.A. "The Biology and Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms".  1978.  P 144.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780121680503
  14. Pulse Canada, Protein Quality of Cooked Pulses (PDCAAS Method); http://www.pulsecanada.com/uploads/ff/28/ff280f2f10206d5a53a241ef6e2e2d25/USA_PC_protein_fact_sheet_p6.pdf
  15. Ahrens, S.; Venkatachalam, M.; Mistry, AM; Lapsley, K; Sathe, SK. "Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein quality", Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2005 Sept; 60(3):123-8.
  16. Serra Bonvehi, J.; Ventura Coll, F. "Protein quality assessment in cocoa husk", Food Research International, 1999 April; 32(3): 201 - 208.
  17. Adu, OB; Ogundeko, TO; Ogunrinola, OO; Saibu, GM; Elemo, BO. "The effect of thermal processing on protein quality and free amino acid profile of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) seed", Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2015, July; 52(7): 4637-4641.
  18. Fenerci, S.; Sener, E; In Vivo and in Vitro Protein Digestibility of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1972) Fed Steam Pressured or Extruded Feeds, Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2005; 5(1): 17-22.
  19. Usydus, Z; Szlinder-Richert, J; Adamczyk, M. "Protein quality and amino acid profiles of fish products available in Poland", Food Chemistry, 2009; 112: 139-145.
  20. Aquilar, EG; Albarracin, Gde J, Unates, MA; Piola, HD; Camina, JM; Escudero, NL. "Evaluation of the nutritional quality of the grain protein for new amaranths varieties", Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2015; 70(1): 21-26.
  21. Phillips, Stuart M. “The impact of protein quality on the promotion of resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle mass.” Nutrition & Metabolism, BioMed Central, 29 Sept. 2016, nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12986-016-0124-8. Accessed 22 Sept. 2017.
  22. Iakshmi, AJ; Kaul, P. "Nutritional potential, bioaccessibility of minerals and functionality of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seeds." LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2011(44): 1821-1826.
  23. House, JD; Neufeld, J; Leson, G. "Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method."  Journal of Agriculture & Food Chemistry, 2010, Nov 24; 58 (22): 11801-7.
  24. Mepba, HD; Achinewhu, SC. "Effects of processing on protein nutritive quality of coconut Cocos nucifera products."  Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2003, Winter 58 (1):  15 - 25.
  25. Barron-Hoyos, J.M.; Archuleta, A.R.; del Refugio Falcon-Villa, M.; Canett-Romero, R.; Cinco-Moroyoqui, F.J.; Romero-Barancini, A.L.; Rueda-Puente, E.O. "Protein Quality Evaluation of Animal Food Proteins by In-Vitro Methodologies."  Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2013, 4: 376-384.  **This source lists an effect on protein digestibility due to collagen content.  Please request a copy of the source if needed.
  26. Pirman, T.; Maric, M.; Oresnik, A. "Changes in Digestibility and Biological Value of Pumpkin Seed Cake Protein After Limiting Amino Acids Supplementation."  Krmiva 49 (2007), Zagreb, 2:95-102.
  27. "True Protein Digestibility Value of Common Foods." Federal Register.  1993, Vol. 58, No. 3, 2193-2195.
  28. Mansour, E.H.; Dworschak, A.L.; Barna, E.; Gergley, A. "Nutritive value of pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo Kakai 35) seed products."  Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.  1993.
  29. California Walnut Board; Covance Laboratories. "Determination of Protein Digestibility Following Dietary Administration of Walnuts to Rats for 9 Days". 2018
  30. reserved
  31. Hershey Company product support. ***Consumer relations response regarding cocoa powder. 2019.
  32. House, J.; Hill, K.; Neufeld, J.; Franczyk, A. "Determination of the protein quality of almonds (Prunus dulcis L.) as assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodologies." Food Science & Nutrition. 2019; 00:1-7.
  33. GRAS Notice for Mung Bean Protein Isolate; FDA letter to Hampton Creek, 2016.
  34. Mubarak, A.E., “Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of mung bean seeds (Phaseolus aureus) as affected by some
    home traditional processes.” Food Chemistry. 2005; 89:489-495.